2017 Ranking Map

Ranking Map
Select a Country

Use the map above or click on a country below to find out more.

Argentina

In 2017 Argentina ranks 41st overall, which combines ranks of 44 in Resources, 31 in Environment, 43 in Connectivity and 36 in Output. The Output ranking has risen from 41st last year, but this has only improved it to the rank recorded five years ago. In the Resources category, the level of government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked at 23 but total expenditure per student is ranked much lower at 48. The difference is explained by the high enrolment rate, ranked at 15. Among the Connectivity variables, the best ranking (29th) is for articles written jointly between academics and international collaborators and the worst rank is (46th) for articles written jointly with researchers from industry. Published articles per head are ranked at 43 and their average impact is ranked at 37. When the rankings are adjusted for differences in GDP per capita Argentina falls in the overall ranking to 42nd, which includes a fall in the Connectivity rank to 49th; its overall score is below that expected for its level of income.

Australia

In 2017 Australia ranks 10th overall, which combines ranks of 15 for Resources, 3 for Environment, 12 for Connectivity and 3 for Output. The ranking for Output is four places higher than it was five years ago. The ranking for Resources is pulled down by the low ranking (44th) for government expenditure on higher education, although the official data do not reflect the full cost of the student loans scheme. Private expenditure exceeds government expenditure so that total expenditure is ranked 17th and expenditure per student 10th. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions as a share of GDP is ranked seventh. In the Connectivity measures, Australia ranks third on international student numbers but performs less well for connectivity with industry: ranked 21st by business for knowledge transfer and 27th for joint publications with industry. Australia is ranked first on publications per head but is twelfth on their average impact. It ranks eighth for participation rates and tenth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the labour force. The unemployment rate for those with tertiary qualifications compared with those whose highest qualification is final year of schooling or non-tertiary post school is around the median value for our 50 countries. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 18th for numeracy and literacy. Australia is again ranked 10th when levels of GDP per capita are taken into account and the score is above that expected at its income level.

Austria

In 2017 Austria ranks 11th overall, which combines ranks of 8 for Resources, 27 for the Environment, 3 for Connectivity and 20 for Output. In Connectivity it ranks in the top six for three of the components: the share of international students, articles co-authored with international researchers and articles co-authored with industry researchers. Austria ranks fourth for government expenditures and twelfth for total expenditure as a share of GDP and is in the top six countries for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. Within Output, the highest rank is for the number of national researchers per head of population (tenth). Austria ranks 16th on published articles per head of population and 13th on their impact. Austrian tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked third on numeracy and literacy. When the rankings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Austria’s ranking falls to 18th overall, but its score is what is expected at its income level.

Belgium

In 2017 Belgium ranks 12th overall, which combines ranks of 16 for Resources, 7 for Environment, 9 for Connectivity and 14 for Output. The Output ranking is two places higher than it was five year’s ago. Total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 28th but government expenditure is ranked tenth and expenditure per student is ranked 19th. The high rank for Environment is due in part to the country being ranked fourth by the WEF business survey. Within the Connectivity module, Belgium is ranked fourth for the proportion of articles co-authored with international collaborators. It has good links with industry: ranked seventh for joint publications and 13th for knowledge transfer. In Output, Belgium is ranked 14th for publications per head and tenth for their impact. Tertiary enrolled students and recent graduates are ranked fifth for numeracy and literacy. The enrollment rate is ranked 20th. Belgium’s overall ranking falls to 16th when performance is adjusted for levels of GDP per capita but its score is above that expected for a country at its level of income.

Brazil

In 2017 Brazil ranks 42nd overall, which combines ranks of 33 for Resources, 42 for Environment, 48 for Connectivity and 37 for Output. The absence of official data on private expenditure and R&D expenditure means that the ranking for Resources is only an approximation. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 34th. In the Output module Brazil is 11th on total publications but only 40th on publications per head and 47th for the average impact of papers. The country ranks 26th for the quality of its best three universities but is in the bottom decile for participation rate and the qualification of its workforce. Collaboration with international researchers and with local business are ranked in the bottom quintile. When the country standings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Brazil rises to 28th in the rankings but its score is a little below that expected at its income level.

Bulgaria

In 2017 Bulgaria ranks 45th overall, three ranks higher than last year. The overall ranking combines ranks of 49 for Resources, 45 for Environment, 36 for Connectivity and 42 for Output. The Output rank has fallen five places since 2013. Bulgaria ranks 50th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and 44th for total expenditure. Bulgaria is ranked fifth for employment of those with a tertiary qualification relative to school leavers. Enrolment rates and the educational attainments of its workforce are around median levels. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the rank for Output. Joint publications with international authors have increased to now rank 26th and joint publications with industry are ranked 31st. But business ranks knowledge transfer with them at a low 45th. When account is taken of the level of GDP per capita in each country, Bulgaria is ranked 49th and its score is well below the expected level.

Canada

In 2017 Canada is ranked 7th overall, a rise of two places from last year. The overall result combines ranks of 3 for Resources, 20 for Environment, 14 for Connectivity and 7 for Output. The rank for Environment has improved from previous years because the revised measure gives more weight to the numbers enrolled in non-university tertiary education. In Resources, Canada ranks second for total expenditure as a share of GDP and seventh for expenditure per student. In the Output category, Canada is ranked ninth for total publications and tenth for publications deflated by population. Its best three universities are ranked equal fourth. Canada is ranked first for the formal educational qualifications of its workforce but its tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 17th for literacy and numeracy. In Connectivity, Canada ranks third for web impact and 18th for joint publications with international authors. Engagement with industry is above average: ranked 14th for knowledge transfer and 16th for joint publications. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Canada ranks eleventh overall and the score is above that expected at its income level.

Chile

In 2017 Chile ranks 34th overall, which combines ranks of 28 for Resources, 15 for Environment, and 37 for Connectivity and 41st for Output. In the Resources category, government expenditure on tertiary education as a share of GDP has risen 20 places to 27th but this has substituted for private expenditure such that total expenditure has fallen three places to fifth. In the Connectivity category, Chile ranks tenth on the share of articles co-authored with international collaborators. There is less connectivity with industry: ranked 41st for co-authored articles and 36th for knowledge transfer. In Output, Chile does best on tertiary enrolment rates (seventh) but is ranked only 39th on the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. The literacy and numeracy skills of its tertiary students and recent graduates rank 29th. Chile ranks 36th for published articles per head of population. When levels of GDP per capita are allowed for, Chile ranks 36th overall and its score is below that expected at its income level.

China

In 2017 China ranks 30th overall, which combines ranks of 43 for Resources, 19 for Environment, 45 for Connectivity and 21 for Output. In the Resources category, total expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 34th. Within the Connectivity category, knowledge transfer to industry is ranked 26th, the share of articles co-authored with industry is ranked 37th, but the proportion of articles written with international collaborators is the second lowest of all countries at 18%. Web impact is above average. In Output, China is ranked second on total publications but 42nd when population is allowed for. China has improved five ranks in Output over the last five years. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, China’s overall rank improves to 14th and its score is above that expected at its income level; it is ranked fourth for Output.

Croatia

In 2017 Croatia ranks 43rd overall, which combines ranks of 45 for Resources, 44 for Environment, 40 for Connectivity and 34 for Output. The Output rank is four above that for 2013. Public expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 36th and total expenditure 34th. The highest ranked component in Connectivity is the share of research papers co-authored with industry (23rd) but business ranks knowledge transfer at 46. The Output category includes a rank of 30 for publications per head and their average impact is ranked at 35. The depth of quality in its universities and enrolment rates are at median levels. Croatia scores well (rank 14) for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the Output score. Croatia’s overall rank is 31 when allowance is made for income differences across countries and its overall score is less than expected at its level of income. It does best in Output where it is above expected value and is ranked 12th.

Czech Republic

In 2017 The Czech Republic ranks 24th overall, which combines ranks of 27 for Resources, 33 for Environment, 21 for Connectivity and 30 for Output. Expenditure (both public and private) as a share of GDP is ranked 33rd and research expenditure 14th. The Czech Republic is ranked 21st for joint publications with industry but business views on knowledge transfer give a much lower rank of 37. Most of the Output variables yield values around median levels, except that the country performs very well on the criterion of unemployment levels for those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers (ranked sixth). Publications adjusted for population and their impact are both ranked 24th. The Output rank has remained remarkably stable over five years of ranking. The literacy and numeracy scores of its students and recent graduates are ranked tenth. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account the Czech Republic is ranked 21st and its score is about that expected at its level of income.

Denmark

In 2017 Denmark is ranked fourth overall, which combines ranks of 2 for Resources, 21 for Environment, 4 for Connectivity and 4 for Output. Within the Resources category, it is ranked fifth for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 13th for total expenditure (public plus private) per student. Denmark is ranked first for spending on research and development by tertiary institutions (as a share of GDP) and second for the number of national researchers per head of population. In the Connectivity module, Denmark is ranked in the top ten for all variables and first for joint publications with industry. It ranks ninth for international students. In Output it is ranked third for publications per head of population and second for their average impact. Denmark is ranked third for the overall quality of its universities. The Output rank has improved four places over the last five years. The literacy and numeracy scores of its students and recent graduates are ranked ninth. Denmark maintains its overall ranking of fourth when adjustment is made for different levels of GDP per capita. Its score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Finland

In 2017 Finland ranks ninth overall, which combines ranks of 7 for Resources, 8 for Environment, 10 for Connectivity and 9 for Output. It ranks third in government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 13th on total expenditure (public plus private) per student. It ranks fifth for research expenditure by tertiary institutions and second in the number of national researchers per head of population. In Output, Finland is fourth on publications per head and 9th on their average impact. Enrolment rates are ranked fourth. Finland has fallen four places in Output over the last five years. In Connectivity, Finland is ranked fourth for Web transparency; seventh for knowledge transfer with business; and 12th for both joint publications with industry and with international authors. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked first for literacy and numeracy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Finland’s overall ranking is unchanged at sixth and its score is well above what is expected given its level of income.

France

In 2017 France ranks 18th overall, which combines ranks of 17 in Resources, 23 in Environment, 18 in Connectivity, and 16 in Output. Within the Resources category it is ranked 19th for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 18th for total expenditure per student. (Private expenditure is about 20 per cent of total expenditure.) In Connectivity, France ranks eighth for joint publications with industry and 16th for joint publications with international authors. The rank for Connectivity is pulled down by the web connectivity variables: ranked 31st for web impact. France ranks 11th for international students. In the Output module France is ranked eighth for the standing of its best three universities. The total number of publications by the country’s universities is ranked sixth, but this falls to 23rd when adjusted for population. The average impact of publications is ranked 19th. French tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 12th for numeracy and literacy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, France’s overall rank is 24 and its score is around the level expected at its level of income.

Germany

In 2017 Germany is ranked equal 16th overall, which combines ranks of 20 for Resources, 24 for Environment, 15 for Connectivity and 13 for Output. In the Resources category it ranks 39th on total expenditure (public plus private) as a share of GDP but 14th on expenditure per student. The difference is explained by the relative low rank (31st) for the participation rate in higher education. In Connectivity Germany performs well on links with industry: ranked ninth for joint publications and 12th for knowledge transfer. It ranks 19th for the share of publications that have international co-authors. In Output, German universities are ranked fifth for total publications, 26th for publications deflated by population and 14th for the average impact of publications. The country ranks seventh on the standing of its best three universities. The Output rank has fallen four places over the last five years. The Environment score is pulled down in part because the points awarded for national policy disadvantages some federations. German tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked sixth for numeracy and literacy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Germany’s overall ranking falls to 30th and its score is a little below what is expected given its level of income.

Greece

In 2017 Greece is ranked equal 35th overall, which combines ranks of 32 for Resources, 50 for Environment, 29 for Connectivity and 29 for Output. It ranks 11th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 42nd for expenditure per student. This difference is explained by the high recorded participation rate in tertiary education, ranked first. In Connectivity, Greece is ranked 23rd for publications with international researchers and 26th for publications with industry, but business ranks the higher education sector at only 41st for knowledge transfer. Web connectivity is around median levels. Other than for the participation rate, the rankings for all the Output measures lie around median values: ranging from a rank of 22 for the average impact of research articles to 32nd for the quality of its best three universities. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 25th for numeracy and literacy. Greece obtains the lowest score of all countries for the Environment owing to the very limited independence given to institutions and a low score given by business. When account is taken of levels of per capita GDP, Greece’s overall ranking improves to 23rd and is about the level expected at its level of income.

Hong Kong SAR

In 2017 Hong Kong SAR is ranked 14th overall, which combines ranks of 12 for Resources, 6 for Environment, 11 for Connectivity and 22 for Output. The Environment score is high reflecting a system that gives significant autonomy to institutions while maintaining overall surveillance. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 14th, total expenditure tenth, and expenditure per student third. In Connectivity, Hong Kong SAR is ranked second in articles co-authored with international collaborators. The higher education sector is ranked 11th for business satisfaction with the extent of knowledge transfer but is ranked lower at 32nd for articles written with industry. Web-based connectivity is ranked in the top 10. In the Output category, Hong Kong SAR is ranked 12th on publications per head and 15th on the impact of articles. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Hong Kong’s ranking falls to 26th and its score is a about that expected at its income level.

Hungary

In 2017 Hungary is ranked 31st overall, which combines ranks of 39 for Resources, 39 for Environment, 20 for Connectivity and 32 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 39th and total expenditure per student ranks 33rd. The Connectivity ranking includes a ranking of sixth in joint publications with industry and 25th in joint publications with international authors. Within the Output category, Hungary is ranked first for employment of the tertiary educated workforce compared with those who left after completing final year of schooling. It is ranked 34th on publications per head and 30th on their impact. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Hungary’s ranking is 41st and its score is below that expected at its income level. The adjusted rank has fallen from last year owing largely to Hungarian universities falling out of the Shanghai rankings.

India

In 2017 India is ranked 49th overall, which combines ranks of 38 for Resources, 49 for Environment, 49 for Connectivity and 48 for Output. It is ranked 17th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 47th for expenditure on research by tertiary institutions. Within the Connectivity category, India ranks well down for joint publications: both with international authors (50th) and with industry (45th). It is scored higher by business on knowledge transfer (31st). It rates lowly for web connectivity of institutions. Within the Output category, India ranks 12th on total publications but 49th on publications per head. The average impact of articles is ranked at 45. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, India’s overall ranking rises 17th owing to large increases in the ranking for Resources (ninth) and Output (21st). India’s GDP-adjusted overall score is a little above the level expected at its income level.

Indonesia

In 2017 Indonesia is ranked 50th overall, which combines ranks of 50 for Resources, 32 for Environment, 41 for Connectivity and 50 for Output. It is ranked 49th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In Connectivity, Indonesia ranks, 33rd for joint publications with industry, 39th for joint publications with international authors and 40th for knowledge transfer with business. There has been a notable decline in most of the connectivity scores from last year’s ranking. Indonesia ranks in the bottom quintile for all Output measures (except employment rates of the tertiary educated compared with school leavers) and loses points for not having a university in the Shanghai top 500. When allowance is made for levels of per capita GDP, Indonesia’s overall ranking remains at 50 and the score is well below that expected at its income level.

Iran

In 2017 Iran is ranked 48th overall, which combines ranks of 47 for Resources, 41 for Environment, 50 for Connectivity and 40 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 43rd and research expenditure by institutions is ranked 35th. Among the Connectivity measures Iran ranks 48th for joint publications both with international collaborators and with industry. Web-based impact is ranked 40th. The number of articles published by Iranian authors is ranked 16th, but this falls to 35th when population differences are allowed for; the average impact of articles is ranked 43rd. Iran ranks 29th for enrolment rates and 37th for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita, the rank for Output improves to 24th, and is about the level expected at Iran’s level of income. However, the improvement in the overall rank is less dramatic (to 40th) and the score is below that expected.

Ireland

In 2017 Ireland is ranked 19th overall, which combines ranks of 25 for Resources, 11 for Environment, 17 for Connectivity and 17 for Output. Heavy dependence on government funds shows up in a rank of 20th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 40th for total expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked 22nd. In Connectivity, Irish institutions perform relatively best in joint publications with international collaborators (ranked 9th). In links with business, Ireland is ranked 18th on both joint publications and knowledge transfer. In Output, Ireland is ranked 16th on both publications by tertiary institutions (per head of population) and their average impact. It ranks 11th for the educational levels of its workforce and seventh for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Irish tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 22nd for numeracy and literacy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Ireland’s ranking is 33rd, which is below the level expected at its income level.

Israel

In 2017 Israel is ranked 16th overall, which combines ranks of 19 for Resources, 18 for Environment, 19 for Connectivity and 10 for Output. The rank for Environment has risen due to the widened definition of diversity of institutions and an improvement in rating by business. Israel ranks 33rd for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, which improves to 18th when private expenditure is added. Expenditure per student is ranked 20th. Emphasis is placed on research. Expenditure in tertiary institutions on R&D as a percentage of GDP is ranked 13th; Israel is ranked first for the number of researchers in the country per head of population. Research output per head of population is ranked 19th and the average impact of articles is ranked 18th. Israel is ranked third for knowledge transfer and 22nd for joint articles with industry. Web impact is ranked 23rd. Israel is ranked fifth for the educational qualifications of its workforce. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 27th for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Israel’s ranking improves to ninth. Its score is above that expected at its income level.

Italy

In 2017 Italy is ranked equal 28th overall, which combines ranks of 36 for Resources, 38 for Environment, 24 for Connectivity and 25 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education (75 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP is ranked 41st and R&D expenditure by institutions 28th. Expenditure per student is ranked 27th. In Connectivity, joint publications of academics with industry are ranked 19th and joint publications with international authors 28th. Knowledge transfer with firms is ranked 28th. In the Output category, Italy publishes the seventh largest number of journal articles but this rank falls to 21st when deflated by population size; the average impact of articles is ranked eighth. The three best performing universities are ranked 21st. Italy ranks 43rd on the education qualifications of its workforce and 33rd on number of researchers per head of population. Tertiary students and recent graduates rank 26th in numeracy and literacy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Italy’s ranking falls to 35th and its score is below that expected at its income level.

Japan

In 2017 Japan is ranked 20th overall, which combines ranks of 24 for Resources, 22 for Environment, 25 for Connectivity and 15 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which two-thirds is private) as a share of GDP is ranked 23rd but, because the participation rate is a little below average, expenditure per student is ranked 12th. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions is ranked 18th. Connectivity is predominantly internal: the percentage of articles co-authored with international researchers is ranked a lowly 45th. In contrast, Japan ranks fifth for the percentage of articles written jointly with industry collaborators, and knowledge transfer with domestic business is ranked 24th. In Output, Japan ranks fourth on total articles published but 22nd when population size is allowed for. The average impact of articles is ranked at 32. Japan ranks third on the quality of its best three universities and on the educational qualifications of its workforce. It ranks ninth for the number of researchers in the country. Japanese tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked seventh for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Japan’s rank falls to 36 and is below the level expected at its income level.

Korea

In 2017 Korea is ranked 22nd overall, which combines ranks of 21 for Resources, 43 for Environment, 30 for Connectivity and 18 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which 60 per cent is private) as a share of GDP ranks seventh but expenditure per student ranks much lower at 34th because Korea has the second highest participation rate. Research expenditure by institutions is ranked 24th. The rank for Environment is pulled down by the relatively low proportion of students and staff who are female. Korean links with industry are ranked 11th for joint publications but 27th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 44th. In the Output category, Korea ranks tenth on total publications but 22nd when adjusted for population size. The average impact of publications is ranked at 33. Korea ranks sixth on the education qualifications of its workforce, and fourth on total researchers in the nation (adjusted for population). Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 15th for numeracy and literacy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Korea’s overall rank falls to 34 and is a little below that expected at its income level.

Malaysia

In 2017 Malaysia is ranked 25th overall, which combines ranks of 11 for Resources, 13 for Environment, 34 for Connectivity and 39 for Output. Malaysia is ranked eighth for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and expenditure per student ranks eleventh. Expenditure on R&D in tertiary institutions as a share of GDP ranks 11th. In Connectivity, Malaysia is ranked 16th for knowledge transfer with business, but joint publications with industry and with international collaborators are ranked much lower at 50th and 38th, respectively. Malaysian institutions are ranked 20th for total publications and 31st for publications per head of population. The country is ranked 36th for the educational attainment of the workforce and 31st for the number of researchers in the nation (adjusted for population). Over the last five years Malaysia has risen seven places in Output, the second highest improvement of any country. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Malaysia’s overall ranking improves to 19th and the estimated overall score is around the level expected at Malaysia’s income level.

Mexico

In 2017 Mexico is ranked 46th overall, which combines ranks of 42 for Resources, 25 for Environment, 42 for Connectivity and 49 for Output. It ranks 35th for government expenditure on higher education (which is around 70 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP and 41st for expenditure on research and development. In Connectivity, Mexico ranks 47th for joint publications with industry and 25th for knowledge transfer (14th if allowance is made for national income levels). Joint publications with international authors are ranked 32nd. Web connectivity is below average. In Output, Mexico is ranked 30th for total publications but 47th when adjusted for population. Tertiary enrolment rates are ranked 48th. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Mexico’s overall rank is 48 and the overall score is well below that expected at Mexico’s level of income.

Netherlands

In 2017 The Netherlands is ranked eighth overall, which combines ranks of 13 for Resources, 9 for Environment, 5 for Connectivity and 8 for Output. It is ranked 18th for total expenditure on higher education (which is 70 per cent government funded) as a share of GDP and ninth for expenditure per student. It ranks in the top ten countries for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. It ranks highly for Connectivity with business: fourth for both joint publications and knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 14th and web connectivity is above average. In Output, the Netherlands performs strongly in research publications per head (sixth) and their average impact (third). The participation rate is ranked 18th, and the education qualifications of the workforce 19th. The standing of its universities is high: ranked fifth for depth and 12th for its best three universities. Output has exhibited a steady upward trend over the past five years. The literacy and numeracy skills of tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked second. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita the overall rank is 13. The scores for each of the four broad categories and overall are above those expected at the Netherland’s income levels.

New Zealand

In 2017 New Zealand is ranked equal 15th overall, which combines ranks of 23 for Resources, 2 for Environment, 7 for Connectivity and 19 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, New Zealand is ranked 30th for government expenditure, 11th for total expenditure and 25th for research expenditure. In Connectivity, New Zealand’s highest score is for the percentage of students who are international, where it is ranked second. For joint research it is ranked 11th for publications with international researchers and 25th for publications with industry. The rank for business views on knowledge transfer is tenth. In the Output category New Zealand is ranked 11th on publications per head and 21st on their average impact. Its tertiary enrolment rate is ranked 13th and the tertiary educational qualifications of its workforce is ranked 21st. The literacy and numeracy skills of tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 16th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, New Zealand’s rank improves to seventh and its score is above the level expected at its income level.

Norway

In 2017 Norway is ranked 13th overall, which combines ranks of 10 for Resources, 16 for Environment, 16 for Connectivity and 11 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Norway is ranked 6th for government expenditure (95 per cent of expenditure is public), 20th for total expenditure and 12th for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked eighth. In Connectivity, co-authorship with international collaborators is ranked 13th and with industry 17th. Web connectivity is ranked seventh. In the Output variables, Norway scores highest for the average quality of its universities (seventh), number of national researchers (eighth) and research publications (ninth), each adjusted for population. The average impact of publications is ranked 11th. Norway is ranked 19th for participation rates in higher education and 13th for the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce. The literacy and numeracy skills of tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked eighth. Norway’s overall rank falls to 29th when account is taken of levels of GDP per head and the overall score is a little below that expected at its high income level.

Poland

In 2017 Poland is ranked 32nd overall, which combines ranks of 34 for Resources, 17 for Environment, 46 for Connectivity and 31 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Poland is ranked 16th for government expenditure, 32nd for total expenditure and 32nd for research expenditure. Connectivity with industry is below average: Poland ranks 38th in joint articles with industry and 47th in knowledge transfer with business. In joint articles with international collaborators Poland is ranked 42nd. Web connectivity is a little below the median. In Output, Poland is ranked 19th on published articles but this falls to 32nd when adjusted for population. The average impact of articles is ranked at 28. Participation rates are ranked 22nd and the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce 27th. Poland performs well (fourth) on the employment rates of those with a tertiary qualification compared with those who only completed final year of schooling. Tertiary students and recent graduates are rank 14th for literacy and numeracy. Poland’s rank remains at 32 when account is taken of levels of GDP per capita and its score is below that expected at its income level.

Portugal

In 2017 Portugal is ranked 27th overall, which combines ranks of 26 for Resources, 36 for Environment, 28 for Connectivity and 27 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Portugal is ranked 37th for government expenditure, 31st for total expenditure, but 10th for research expenditure. Under the heading of Connectivity, Portugal is ranked 20th for joint publications with international researchers and 36th for publications with industry. Knowledge transfer with business is ranked 22nd. In the Output module, publications per head are ranked 15th. The tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce are ranked 32nd and the tertiary enrolment rate is ranked 30th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Portugal’s ranking jumps to eighth (second on Output) and its score is above that expected at its level of income.

Romania

In 2017 Romania is ranked 44th overall, which combines ranks of 46 for Resources, 30 for Environment, 32 for Connectivity and 46 for Output. Total expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 42nd and research expenditure 45th. The Environment measure benefits from institutions having a relatively high percentage of female staff (ranked seventh). In the Connectivity measures, knowledge transfer with business is ranked 20th, higher than joint publications (ranked 39th). Joint articles with international collaborators is ranked 41st. The absence of a university in the top 500 lowers the Output score. Romania is ranked 37th on research articles per head and 42nd on their average impact. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Romania is ranked 46th and its score is well below that expected at its level of income.

Russian Federation

In 2017 Russia is ranked 33rd overall, which combines ranks of 40 for Resources, 29 for Environment, 44 for Connectivity and 26 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Russia is ranked 32nd for government expenditure as a share of GDP, 32nd for total expenditure and 43rd for research expenditure. In the Connectivity module, Russia is relatively weak on interactions with industry: it is ranked 43rd on joint publications with industry and 39th for knowledge transfer with firms. It ranks 35th for joint publications with international researchers. In the Output module, the Russia is ranked second for the educational qualifications of its workforce and eighth for the employment rates of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Total research publications rank 21st, publications per head 45th and their average impact 31st. Over the last five years Russia has improved six places on Output, the (equal) third largest increase. Students and recent graduates are ranked 24th for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita the rank is 43 and the GDP adjusted score for Russia is well below that expected at its income level.

Saudi Arabia

In 2017 Saudi Arabia is ranked equal 25th overall, which combines ranks of 9 for Resources, 48 for Environment, 26 for Connectivity and 33 for Output. It is ranked first for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In the Connectivity module, Saudi Arabia is ranked first for the share of publications that have an international collaborator but it is ranked only 40th for joint publications with industry. Web connectivity is in the lowest quintile. The highest score in the Output module is for the quality of its best three universities where it is ranked 16th. It is ranked 39th for publications per head and 20th for their average impact. High government expenditure is now showing up in the Output rank that has improved 12 places over the last five years, the largest improvement for any country. However, Saudi Arabia’s high level of GDP per capita inevitably means that its ranking falls (to 47th) when income levels are allowed for. The GDP adjusted score for Saudi Arabia is well below that expected at its income level.

Serbia

In 2017 Serbia is ranked 39th overall, which combines ranks of 31 for Resources, 46 for Environment, 39 for Connectivity and 43 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 15th and expenditure by institutions on R&D is ranked 24th. Serbia ranks 42nd on joint publications with industry and 31st on joint publications with international authors. In the Output module, Serbia ranks 33rd in publications per head and 39th in their average impact. It ranks 29th for the average quality of its universities. The tertiary education qualifications of the work force are ranked 41st and the enrolment rate 37th. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Serbia’s rank jumps to first place and the score is well above that expected for its level of income.

Singapore

In 2017 Singapore is ranked sixth overall, which combines ranks of 4 for Resources, 4 for Environment, 8 for Connectivity and 12 for Output. It ranks 25th for government expenditure on tertiary education as a share of GDP, but first for both total expenditure per student and R&D expenditure by universities per head of population. In the Connectivity category, it ranks first for the relative importance of international students. It ranks fifth for the relative importance of joint publications with international authors, 30th for joint publications with industry and eighth for the degree of knowledge transfer with firms. Web impact is high. Singapore is ranked seventh for publications per head of population and their average impact is ranked fifth. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked fourth and the number of national researchers per head of population is ranked sixth. Singapore has risen six ranks in Output over the last five years, the (equal) third largest improvement among our 50 countries. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 11th for literacy and numeracy. When allowance is made for national levels of GDP per head Singapore’s ranking falls to 20th but the score is around what is expected at its income levels.

Slovakia

In 2017 Slovakia is ranked 38th overall, which combines ranks of 37 for Resources, 40 for Environment, 33 for Connectivity and 35 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which nearly 80 per cent is by government) as a share of GDP is ranked 46th; government expenditure at 38th. Slovakia is ranked 31st for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. Within the Connectivity module, Slovakia is ranked 36th for joint publications with international researchers, 34th for joint publications with industry and 42nd for knowledge transfer with firms. The Output score is lowered by the absence of any university in the Shanghai top 500. Publications per head are ranked at 29 and their average impact at 27. Slovakia ranks highly at twelfth for the employment rate of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 13th for literacy and numeracy. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Slovakia’s rank falls to 44 and its score is well below that expected at its income level.

Slovenia

In 2017 Slovenia is ranked 28th overall, which combines ranks of 35 for Resources, 35 for Environment, 23 for Connectivity and 28 for Output. It is ranked around the median level for many of the indicators. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 26th but because private expenditure is low (12 per cent) total expenditure is ranked 41st. In the Connectivity module, joint papers with industry are ranked 14th and with international collaborators 27th, but knowledge transfer with firms rates poorly at 42nd. Slovenia has slipped four places in the Output ranking over the last five years. It is ranked 18th for publications per head and 26th for their average impact. The highest ranking among the Output variables occurs for participation rates in higher education where Slovenia is ranked tenth. It is ranked 15th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 19th in literacy and numeracy skills. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Slovenia is ranked 25th and the score is around that expected at its income level.

South Africa

In 2017 South Africa is ranked 37th overall, which combines ranks of 41 for resources, 28 for Environment, 31 for Connectivity and 38 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 46th and research expenditure 34th. The Environment rank is dragged down by a very low score on the World Economic Forum rating by business (ranked 50th) and its rank of 44 for data quality. In Connectivity, South Africa is 21st for joint publications with international researchers, 29th for joint publications with industry and 34th for knowledge transfer with firms. But web-based connectivity is in the bottom decile. South Africa’s rank in the Output module has improved six place over the last five years, the (equal) third largest improvement among our 50 countries. The tertiary education sector is ranked 41st for publications per head but 29th for their average impact. Both enrolment rates and the educational qualifications of the workforce are in the bottom decile. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, South Africa’s rank jumps to third (first for Connectivity) and the score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Spain

In 2017 Spain is ranked 23rd overall, which combines ranks of 30 for Resources, 34 for Environment, 27 for Connectivity and 23 for Output. As a share of GDP, Spain is ranked 31st for government expenditure (about 70 per cent of total expenditure), 36th for total expenditure and 27th for research expenditure in higher education. In engagement with the private sector, Spain ranks 20th for joint publications with industry and 35th for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international collaborators are ranked 24th. Spain’s tertiary institutions are ranked 20th for web connectivity. In Output, Spain is ranked 13th for total publications and 25th on a per capita basis. The average impact of published articles is ranked 23rd. The participation rate in tertiary education is ranked third which is much higher than the educational qualifications of the workforce (ranked 20th). Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 23rd for literacy and numeracy skills. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, Spain’s rank is 27 and its score is around that expected at its level of income.

Sweden

In 2017 Sweden is ranked fifth overall, which combines ranks of 1 for Resources, 14 for Environment, 6 for Connectivity and 5 for Output. In Resources as a share of GDP, Sweden is ranked seventh for government expenditure (about 90 per cent of total expenditure), 15th for total expenditure and second for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked sixth. Sweden’s lowest rank is for Environment which owes to its score for institutional autonomy being only around median values. Sweden performs well in engagement with industry: ranks third for joint publications and sixth for knowledge transfer. It ranks eighth for joint publications with international researchers and is in the top ten for web connectivity. In Output, Sweden is ranked second for publications per head and seventh for their average impact. Its university sector is ranked second for average quality. It is ranked 15th for the educational qualifications of its workforce and fifth for the number of researchers in the nation per capita. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked fourth for literacy and numeracy skills. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Sweden is ranked fifth overall and its score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Switzerland

In 2017 Switzerland is ranked second overall, which combines ranks of 5 for Resources, 12 for Environment, 1 for Connectivity and 6 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 13th and expenditure per student fifth. Switzerland ranks third for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. Connectivity within the nation and externally is high. It is rated first for knowledge transfer with firms, 10th for joint publications with industry, and third for joint publications with international researchers. It is fifth for the proportion of students who are international. Web-based impact is ranked second. In Output, Switzerland is ranked fifth for publications per head and first for their average impact. Its universities are ranked first for average quality. It ranks 14th for the educational qualifications of its workforce and 13th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Switzerland is ranked 12th and its score is above that expected at its level of income.

Taiwan-China

In 2017 Taiwan-China is ranked 21st overall, which combines ranks of 29 for Resources, 10 for Environment, 22 for Connectivity and 24 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 21st, of which about one-half is private. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with firms is rated 19th but joint publications with industry are ranked lower at 35th. Joint publications with international researchers are rated lowly at 47th. Taiwan-China ranks fifth for Web connectivity. In Output, it is ranked 15th for total publications and 36th for their average impact. It is ranked eighth for the educational qualifications of its workforce and ninth for the enrolment rate in higher education. Taiwan-China is well provided with researchers per head of population where it is ranked seventh. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Taiwan-China slips to 38th in the ranking and is below the level expected at its income level.

Thailand

In 2017 Thailand is ranked equal 47th overall, which combines ranks of 48 for Resources, 26 for Environment, 35 for Connectivity and 47 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 45th and expenditure on R&D is ranked 42nd. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with industry is 30th, a fall of 15 places from last year. Joint publications with industry are ranked 24th, those with international researchers are ranked 34th. The Output score is negatively impacted from having no university in the Shanghai top 500. Publications per head are ranked 46th and their average impact 40th. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked 40th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Thailand ranks 45th but this includes a rank of 16th for Connectivity, an attribute which is important at Thailand’s stage in development. Thailand’s adjusted score is well below that expected at its level of income.

Turkey

In 2017 Turkey is ranked equal 40th overall, a rise of five places from last year. The overall rank includes ranks of 22 for Resources, 47 for Environment, 47 for Connectivity and 44 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks ninth, total expenditure ranks 16th and research expenditure by tertiary institutions ranks 20th. Among the Connectivity variables the highest rank (29th) is for knowledge transfer with firms. But research links are not strong: for articles written jointly with international collaborators Turkey ranks 46th, for joint articles with industry it ranks 49th. In Output, Turkish institutions of higher education rank 17th for total publications but 38th for publications per head. Citations per article are ranked 44th. Participation rates are ranked 16th but it will take time for this to flow through to the educational qualifications of the workforce (currently ranked 42nd). The number of researchers per head of population is ranked 40th. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 28th for literacy and numeracy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Turkey’s rank is 37th and its score is below that expected at its level of income.

Ukraine

In 2017 Ukraine is ranked 35th overall, which combines ranks of 18 for Resources, 37 for Environment, 38 for Connectivity and 45 for Output. Ukraine is second for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. However because of the high participation rate (ranked 11th) expenditure per student is in the lower quintile. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions has a low ranking of 46. In Connectivity, Ukraine ranks 28th for joint publications with industry but only 43rd for knowledge transfer with industry. It ranks 35th for joint publications with international authors. In Output, Ukraine loses points for not having a flagship university in the Shanghai top 500. Ukraine ranks 48th for both total publications and publications per head of population and 50th for their average impact. The Output rank has fallen ten places over the last five years. Enrolment rates are ranked 11th and the level of (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce is ranked 16th. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Ukraine’s overall ranking improves to 22nd and its score is about that expected at its income level.

United Kingdom

In 2017 The United Kingdom is ranked third overall, which combines ranks of 6 for Resources, 1 for Environment, 2 for Connectivity and 2 for Output. As a share of GDP, government expenditure on higher education is ranked 21st, total expenditure eighth and research expenditure 19th. Expenditure per student is ranked fourth which reflects the lower than average participation rate (ranked 39th). Connectivity with industry is relatively strong: the United Kingdom ranks ninth for knowledge transfer with business and 13th for joint publications. In joint publications with international authors it is ranked 15th. The United Kingdom ranks fourth for the percentage of students who are international and fourth for the number of times external users access websites (deflated by population). In the Output category, the United Kingdom ranks third for total publications, eighth for publications per head of population and sixth for the average impact of articles. It ranks second for the quality of its best three universities. It is ranked ninth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce and 16th for researchers per head of population. UK (England) students and recent graduates are ranked 21st for literacy and numeracy. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the United Kingdom is ranked second and its score is well above the level expected at its income level.

United States of America

In 2017 The United States is ranked first overall, which combines ranks of 6 for Resources, 1 for Environment, 13 for Connectivity and 1 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked first (split about evenly between public and private) and expenditure per student second. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions as a share of GDP is ranked 22nd. Links with the private sector are strong: knowledge transfer is rated second and joint publications 15th. However, joint publications with international authors rank only 37th. Although the United States has the largest absolute number of international students, as a share of its total students it ranks only 22nd. It ranks first for the number of times external users access websites of tertiary institutions even when adjusted for population. In Output, the United States is first for total publications, 20th for publications per head of population and fourth for the average impact of articles. It ranks sixth for participation rates and seventh for the (tertiary) educational credentials of its workforce. It is ranked first for the quality of its best three universities and 20th for the national number of researchers per head of population. Tertiary students and recent graduates are ranked 20th for literacy and numeracy skills. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the overall rank for the United States falls to 15th but its score is above the level expected at its income level.

Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Brazil
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
China
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hong Kong SAR
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Malaysia
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Serbia
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Taiwan-China
Thailand
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United States of America