2016 Ranking Map

Ranking Map
Select a Country

Use the map above or click on a country below to find out more.

Argentina

In 2016 Argentina ranks 40th overall, which combines ranks of 36 for Resources, 36 for Environment, 44 for Connectivity and 41 for Output. The overall rank is a fall of two places over last year’s rank. In the Resources category, the level of expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked at 19 (three-quarters of expenditure is by government) but total expenditure per student is ranked much lower at 47. The difference is explained by the high enrolment rate, ranked at 12: recent expansion is reflected in the discrepancy between this and the rank of 45 for the educational qualifications of the workforce. Among the Connectivity variables, the best ranking (27th) is for articles written jointly between academics and international collaborators and the worst rank is (44th) for articles written jointly with researchers from industry. Published articles per head are ranked at 43 and their average impact is ranked at 38. Comparing outcomes (Output + Connectivity) with inputs (Resources + Environment) sector productivity is well below average. When the rankings are adjusted for differences in GDP per capita Argentina falls in the overall ranking to 46th, which includes a fall in the Connectivity rank to 49th; its overall score is substantially below that expected for its level of income.

Australia

In 2016 Australia ranks 10th overall, which combines ranks of 14 for Resources, 7 for Environment, 13 for Connectivity and 3 for Output. The ranking for Resources is pulled down by the low ranking (37th) for government expenditure on higher education. Private expenditure exceeds government expenditure so that the rank for total expenditure is 20 and that for expenditure per student is 15. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions (adjusted for population) is ranked tenth. In the Connectivity measures, Australia ranks second on international student numbers but performs less well for connectivity with industry: ranked 21st by business for knowledge transfer and 31st for joint publications with industry. Australia has improved to be ranked first on publications per head but is twelfth on their average impact. It ranks sixth for participation rates and tenth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the labour force. The unemployment rate for those with tertiary qualifications compared with those whose highest qualification is final year of schooling or non-tertiary post school is around the median value for our 50 countries. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is ranked in the top ten. Australia has a rank of 14 when levels of GDP per capita are taken into account and score is above that expected at its income level.

Austria

In 2016 Austria ranks 13th overall, which combines ranks of 8 for Resources, 24 for the Environment, 3 for Connectivity and 19 for Output. In Connectivity it ranks in the top six for three of the components: the share of international students, articles co-authored with international researchers and articles co-authored with industry researchers. Austria ranks fifth for government expenditures and twelfth for total expenditure as a share of GDP and is the top six countries for R&D expenditure in tertiary institutions. Within Output, the highest rank is for the number of national researchers per head of population (10th) and the lowest rank (31st) is for graduate employment. Austria ranks 18th on published articles per head and 14th on their impact. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is around average levels. When the rankings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Austria’s ranking falls to 20th overall, but its score is roughly what is expected at its income level.

Belgium

In 2016 Belgium ranks 11th overall, which combines ranks of 15 for Resources, 9 for Environment, 5 for Connectivity and 13 for Output. The high rank for Environment is due in part to the country being ranked 4th by the WEF business survey. Within the Connectivity module, Belgium is ranked 4th for the proportion of articles co-authored with international collaborators and 5th for joint authorship with industry. The ranks for the various Output variables range from 7th for the average impact of published articles to 21st for number of researchers per head of population. The enrolment rate is ranked 20th, which explains the difference between the ranking of 31 for total expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and the ranking of 17 for expenditure per student. Expenditure is overwhelmingly provided by government where the country ranks 11th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is above average. Belgium’s overall ranking falls to 17th when performance is adjusted for levels of GDP per capita but its score is above that expected for a country at its level of income.

Brazil

In 2016 Brazil ranks 38th overall, which combines ranks of 35 for Resources, 40 for Environment, 47 for Connectivity and 33 for Output. The absence of official data on private expenditure and R&D expenditure means that the ranking for Resources is only an approximation. Government expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 34th. In the Output module Brazil is 11th on total publications but only 40th on publications per head and 48th for the average impact of papers. It ranks 25th for the quality of its best three universities and eighth on the employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with those who did not proceed beyond final year of schooling or had non-tertiary post-secondary qualifications. Collaboration with international researchers and with local business are ranked in the bottom quintile. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is around average levels. When the country standings are adjusted for levels of GDP per capita, Brazil rises to 22nd in the rankings and its score is about the level expected at its income level.

Bulgaria

In 2016 Bulgaria ranks 48th overall, which combines ranks of 49 for Resources, 38 for Environment, 41 for Connectivity and 42 for Output. The overall rank has fallen five places from last year’s rankings owing to falls of seven places in Output and five places in Connectivity. The impact of research as measured by citations has fallen nine places to 49th. Research output is in the bottom quintile. Bulgaria is ranked sixth for employment of those with a tertiary qualification relative to school leavers; enrolment rates and the educational attainments of its workforce are around the median. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the rank for Output. Within the Resources category Bulgaria is ranked 45th for expenditure on tertiary institutions as a share of GDP (evenly split between public and private) and 44th on expenditure per student. Connectivity is limited: ranked 47th on joint publications with international researchers and 46th on business’ views about knowledge transfer. But joint publications with industry are ranked at 30. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is a little below average. When account is taken of the level of GDP per capita in each country, Bulgaria is ranked 49th and its score is well below the expected level given its income level.

Canada

In 2016 Canada is ranked 9th overall a fall of three places from the 2015 rankings. The overall result combines ranks of 4 for Resources (from equal first in 2015), 34 for Environment, 11 for Connectivity and 7 for Output. In Resources it ranks 4th for total expenditure as a share of GDP and 6th for expenditure per student. In the Output category, Canada is ranked 8th for total publications and 10th for publications deflated by population. It is ranked 2nd on the educational qualifications of its workforce, and its best three universities are ranked equal 4th. Canada’s relatively low rank on Environment arises because of limited national oversight (including some gaps in national data) and financial autonomy of universities is scored at around the median level. In Connectivity, it ranks 4th for web impact, 3rd on business ratings of knowledge transfer and 17th for joint publications with industry. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is around average values. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Canada again ranks ninth overall and the score is above that expected at its income level.

Chile

In 2016 Chile ranks 33rd overall, which combines ranks of 33 for Resources, 16 for Environment, and 35 for each of Connectivity and Output. In the Resources category, the important role of private expenditure on higher education (data for 2013 is used) means that while government expenditure as a share of GDP is ranked 47th, total expenditure is ranked 2nd. In the Connectivity category, while Chile ranks 9th on the share of articles co-authored with international collaborators, it ranks only 39th for articles co-authored with industry. In Output, Chile does best on tertiary enrolment rates (9th) but is ranked only 33rd on the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. It ranks 36th for published articles per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is below the median value. When levels of GDP per capita are allowed for, Chile ranks 36th overall and its score is below that expected at its income level.

China

In 2016 China ranks 30th overall, which combines ranks of 45 for Resources, 26 for Environment, 45 for Connectivity and 20 for Output. The overall rank has improved four places from last year’s ranking owing to an improvement of five places in the Output ranking. In the Resources category, total expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 36th. Within the Connectivity category, knowledge transfer to industry is ranked 28rd, the share of articles co-authored with industry is ranked 37th, but the proportion of articles written with international collaborators is the lowest of all countries at 17%. In Output, China is ranked second on total publications but 41st when population is allowed for. It ranks 6th for the quality of its best three universities. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between Output and inputs (Resources + Environment) is around average values but falls a little below average values if Connectivity is added to Output to form a composite outcome measure. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, China’s overall rank has improved from 16th to 5th and its score is well above that expected at its income level. It outperforms in the Output module (ranked 2nd) where published articles per unit of GDP are 50 per cent greater than expected.

Croatia

In 2016 Croatia ranks 46th overall, which combines ranks of 46 for Resources, 47 for Environment, 38 for Connectivity and 40 for Output. Public expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 38th but total expenditure is ranked 48th. The highest ranked component in Connectivity is the share of research papers co-authored with industry (20th) The Output category includes a rank of 29 for publications per head but their average impact is ranked at only 41. Croatia scores well (rank 14) for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. The absence of a university in the Shanghai top 500 lowers the Output score. Croatia’s overall rank is 45 when allowance is made for income differences across countries. It does best in publications divided by GDP, where it is around 30 per cent above expected and is ranked 13th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is above average. But when levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Croatia’s overall score is much less than that expected at its level of income.

Czech Republic

In 2016 The Czech Republic ranks 22nd overall, which combines ranks of 22 in Resources, 20 in Environment, 17 in Connectivity and 30 in Output. Expenditure (both public and private) as a share of GDP is ranked 26th and research expenditure 12th. The Czech Republic is ranked 18th for joint publications with industry but 30th for knowledge transfer. Most of the Output variables yield values around median levels, except that the country performs very well on the criterion of unemployment levels for those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers (ranked fifth). Publications adjusted for population are ranked 26th and their average impact 24th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is above average. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account the Czech Republic is ranked 19th and its score is a little above that expected at its level of income.

Denmark

In 2016 Denmark is ranked third overall, which combines ranks of 1 for Resources, 31 for Environment, 2 for Connectivity and 4 for Output. Within the Resources category, it is ranked second for government expenditure as a share of GDP and seventh for total expenditure (public plus private) per student. Denmark is ranked first for spending on research and development by tertiary institutions. In the Connectivity category, Denmark is ranked in the top ten for all variables and first for joint publications with industry. In Output it is ranked third for publications per head of population and fourth for their average impact. It is ranked second for the number of national researchers per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is around average levels. Denmark maintains its overall ranking of third when adjustment is made for different levels of GDP per capita. Its score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Finland

In 2016 Finland ranks sixth overall, which combines ranks of 7 for Resources, 3 for Environment, 9 for Connectivity and 9 for Output. It is in the top elven countries for all five resource measures and fourth for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. (Private expenditure is less than five per cent of total.) In Connectivity, Finland is ranked third for Web presence; sixth for knowledge transfer with business; and 11th for joint publications with industry. In the Output module, Finland is fifth on publications per head and 13th on their average impact; third on enrolment rates; and third on the number of national researchers per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between inputs (Resources + Environment) and outcomes (Output + Connectivity) is below average. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Finland’s overall ranking is unchanged at sixth and its score is well above what is expected given its level of income.

France

In 2016 France ranks 17th overall, which combines ranks of 19 for each of Resources, Environment and Connectivity, and 14 for Output. Within the Resources category it is ranked 16th for government expenditure as a share of GDP and 19th for total expenditure per student. (Private expenditure is about 13 per cent of total expenditure.) The rank for Connectivity is pulled down by the web connectivity variables: ranked 41st for presence and 31st for impact. The rank for joint publications with industry is 14 and for publications with international authors it is 16. France ranks tenth for international students. In the Output module France is ranked seventh for the standing of its best three universities. The total number of publications by the country’s universities is ranked sixth, but this falls to 21st when adjusted for population. The average impact of publications is ranked 18th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources and Environment) is a little above average. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, France’s overall ranking is 25 and its score is around the level expected at its level of income.

Germany

In 2016 Germany is ranked 16th overall, which combines ranks of 17 for Resources, 28 for Environment, 15 for Connectivity and 11 for Output. In the Resources category it ranks 42nd on total expenditure (public plus private) as a share of GDP but 13th on expenditure per student. The difference is explained by the lower rank (26th) of the participation rate in higher education. In Connectivity Germany performs well on links with industry: ranked ninth for knowledge transfer and eighth for joint publications. It ranks 19th for the share of publications that have international co-authors. In Output, German universities are ranked fifth for total publications, 24th for publications deflated by population and tenth for the average impact of publications. The country ranks eighth on the standing of its best three universities and 13th for the tertiary qualifications of the workforce.. The Environment score is pulled down in part because the points awarded for national policy disadvantages some federations. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources and Environment) is ranked in the top ten. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account Germany’s overall ranking falls to 26th, owing to falls in the Resources and Output rankings, but its score is about what is expected given its level of income.

Greece

In 2016 Greece is ranked 36th overall, which combines ranks of 32 for Resources, 50 for Environment, 31 for Connectivity and 28 for Output. It ranks 13th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP but 39th for expenditure per student. This difference is explained by the high recorded participation rate in tertiary education, ranked first. In Connectivity, Greece is ranked 35th for publications with international researchers and 28th for publications with industry, but business rates the higher education sector at only 40th for knowledge transfer. Web connectivity is around median levels. Other than for the participation rate, the rankings for all the Output measures lie around median values: ranging from a rank of 23 for the average impact of research articles to 33rd for the quality of its best three universities. Greece obtains the lowest score of all countries for the Environment owing to the very limited independence given to institutions and a low score given by business. However, when outcomes (Output + Connectivity) are compared with inputs (Resources + Environment) the higher education sector is ranked in the top ten for sector productivity. When account is taken of levels of per capita GDP, Greece’s overall ranking improves a little to 30th.

Hong Kong SAR

In 2016 Hong Kong SAR is ranked equal 14th overall, which combines ranks of 16 for Resources, 2 for Environment, 12 for Connectivity and 23 for Output. The Environment score is high reflecting a system that gives significant autonomy to institutions while maintaining overall surveillance. Government expenditure on higher education is ranked 30th but expenditure per student is ranked eighth. The difference owes to the relatively low participation rate, which ranks 34th. In Connectivity, Hong Kong SAR is ranked second in articles co-authored with international collaborators. The higher education sector is ranked only 34th for articles written with industry but 11th for business satisfaction with the extent of knowledge transfer. Web-based connectivity is ranked in the top 10. In the Output category, Hong Kong SAR is ranked 12th on publications per head and 15th on the impact of articles. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources and Environment) is around average levels. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Hong Kong’s ranking falls to 32nd and its score is a little below that expected at its income level.

Hungary

In 2016 Hungary is ranked 31st overall, which combines ranks of 43 for Resources, 37 for Environment, 21 for Connectivity and 32 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 42nd and total expenditure per student ranks 34th. The rank for Resources has fallen six places from last year’s rankings. The Connectivity ranking includes a ranking of ninth in joint publications with industry and 23rd in joint publications with international authors. Within the Output category, Hungary is ranked first for employment of the tertiary educated workforce compared with those who left after completing final year of schooling. It is ranked 34th on publications per head and 29th on their impact. Comparing outcomes (Output + Connectivity) with inputs (Resources + Environment), the higher education sector in Hungary is in the ten for sector productivity. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Hungary’s ranking increases to 18th and the score is marginally above the level expected at its income level.

India

In 2016 India is ranked 49th overall, which combines ranks of 38 for Resources, 43 for Environment, 49 for Connectivity and 47 for Output. It is ranked 15th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, but this must serve a large number of students so that expenditure per student is ranked much lower at 48. Within the Connectivity category, India rates well down for joint publications: both with international authors (49th) and with industry (40th). It rates lowly for web connectivity of institutions when the national totals are deflated by total population. Within the Output category, India ranks 13th on total publications but 49th on publications per head. The average impact of articles is ranked at 39. Total productivity of the sector, as measured by comparing total outcomes (Output + Connectivity) with inputs (Resources + Environment) is well below average. However, if outcomes are confined to research, sector productivity is above average. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, India’s overall ranking rises 15th owing to large increases in the ranking for Resources and Output. India’s GDP-adjusted overall score is above the level expected at its income level.

Indonesia

In 2016 Indonesia is ranked 50th overall, which combines ranks of 50 for Resources, 29 for Environment, 32 for Connectivity and 50 for Output. It is ranked 48th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and 50th for total expenditure per student. In Connectivity, Indonesia ranks, 23rd for both in knowledge transfer with business and joint articles. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 28th. Indonesia ranks in the bottom quintile for all Output measures (except employment rates of the tertiary educated compared with school leavers) and loses points for not having a university in the Shanghai top 500. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is above average. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Indonesia rises to 14th in Connectivity including second for articles with industry and third for both knowledge transfer with industry and articles co-authored with international collaborators. However, Indonesia’s overall ranking remains at 50 and the score is well below that expected at its income level.

Iran

In 2016 Iran is ranked 47th overall, which combines ranks of 41 for Resources, 45 for Environment, 50 for Connectivity and 39 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education is ranked 29th but total expenditure per student is estimated to rank only 46th. Iran ranks 34th for R&D expenditure by the tertiary sector. Among the Connectivity measures Iran ranks in the bottom six countries for joint articles with both international collaborators and with industry. Web-based connectivity is ranked 43rd. The number of articles published by Iranian authors is ranked 16th, but this falls to 35th when population differences are allowed for; the average impact of articles is low (ranked 44th). Iran ranks 39th for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of its workforce. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources and Environment) is above average. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita, Iran’s ranking improves to 38, although its score is below that expected for a country with its level of income.

Ireland

In 2016 Ireland is ranked 19th overall, which combines ranks of 24 for Resources, 18 for Environment, 18 for Connectivity and 17 for Output. Ireland is ranked 26th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, a fall of seven places from the 2015 rankings. In Connectivity, Irish institutions perform relatively best in joint publications with international collaborators (ranked 11th) and with business perceptions of knowledge transfer (ranked 16th). In Output, Ireland is ranked 13th on publications by tertiary institutions per head of population and 17th on the average impact of publications. It ranks 13th for the educational levels of its workforce and seventh for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is around average levels. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Ireland’s ranking is 34th, which is below the level expected at its income level.

Israel

In 2016 Israel is ranked 18th overall, which combines ranks of 20 for Resources, 32 for Environment, 20 for Connectivity and 10 for Output. It ranks 35th for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP, which improves to 22nd when private expenditure is added. Expenditure per student is ranked 24th. Expenditure in tertiary institutions on R&D as a percentage of GDP is ranked ninth. In Connectivity, Israel is ranked second for knowledge transfer with business, 26th on joint articles between academics and industry and 22nd on joint articles with international authors. Web presence is ranked eighth and its impact at 24th. In the Output category, Israel is ranked first for the number of researchers per head of population and 5th for the educational qualifications of its workforce. Its research output per head is ranked 20th and the average impact of articles is ranked 19th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) ranks in the top ten. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Israel’s ranking improves to 11th. Its score is above that expected at its income level.

Italy

In 2016 Italy is ranked equal 28th overall, which combines ranks of 37 for Resources, 42 for Environment, 27 for Connectivity and 25 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education (75 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP is ranked 41st and R&D expenditure 25th. Expenditure per student is ranked 29th. In Connectivity, joint publications of academics with industry are ranked 19th and joint publications with international authors 26th. Knowledge transfer with firms is ranked 35th. In the Output category, Italy publishes the seventh largest number of journal articles but this rank falls to 22nd when deflated by population size; the average impact of articles is ranked ninth. The three best performing universities are ranked 16th. Italy ranks 42nd on the education qualifications of its workforce and 31st on number of researchers per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is ranked in the top ten. However, when account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Italy’s ranking falls to 39th and its score is below that expected at its income level.

Japan

In 2016 Japan is ranked 20th overall, which combines ranks of 23 for Resources, 17 for Environment, 24 for Connectivity and 16 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which two-thirds is private) as a share of GDP is ranked 23rd , but because the participation rate is a little below average expenditure per student is ranked 14th. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions is ranked 16th. In Connectivity, Japan ranks third for the percentage of articles written jointly with industry collaborators but the percentage written jointly with international researchers is ranked only 43rd. The views of business on the extent of knowledge transfer translate to a rank of 25. In Output, Japan ranks fourth on total articles published but 28th when population size is allowed for. The average impact of articles is ranked 32nd. Japan ranks third on the quality of its best three universities and fourth on the educational qualifications of its workforce. It ranks ninth for the number of researchers in the country. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is above average. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Japan’s rank falls to 35, including a drop to 33rd for Resources.

Korea

In 2016 Korea is ranked 23rd overall, which combines ranks of 21 for Resources, 44 for Environment, 28 for Connectivity and 18 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which 70 per cent is private) as a share of GDP ranks sixth but expenditure per student ranks 30th because Korea has the second highest participation rate. The rank for Environment is pulled down by the relatively low proportion of students and staff who are female. In Connectivity, Korea ranks seventh on joint publications with industry but 42nd on joint publications with international collaborators. It rates 19th for knowledge transfer with companies. In the Output category, Korea ranks tenth on total publications but 23rd when adjusted for population size. The average impact of publications is ranked at 30. Korea ranks sixth on the education qualifications of its workforce and fifth on total researchers in the nation (adjusted for population). Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is ranked in the top ten. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Korea’s overall rank falls to 31, dragged down by a worsening of the Connectivity rank to 40.

Malaysia

In 2016 Malaysia is ranked 27th overall, which combines ranks of 13 for Resources, 14 for Environment, 34 for Connectivity and 43 for Output. Malaysia is ranked seventh for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP and expenditure per student ranks twelfth. Expenditure on R&D in tertiary institutions ranks 30th. In Connectivity, Malaysia is ranked 12th for knowledge transfer with business, but joint publications with industry and with international collaborators are ranked much lower at 48th and 39th, respectively. Malaysian institutions are ranked 20th for total publications and 31st for publications per head of population. The country is ranked 35th for the educational attainment of the workforce and 33rd for the nation’s researchers (adjusted for population). Comparing outcomes with inputs sector productivity is below average. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is well below average. However, when account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Malaysia’s overall ranking improves to 21st and the estimated overall score is around the level expected at Malaysia’s income level.

Mexico

In 2016 Mexico is ranked 43rd overall, which combines ranks of 40 for Resources, 22 for Environment, 40 for Connectivity and 49 for Output. It ranks 31st for government expenditure on higher education (which is around 70 per cent of total expenditure) as a share of GDP and 36th for expenditure per student. In Connectivity Mexico ranks 30th for joint publications with international authors, 26th for knowledge transfer with firms and 46th for joint publications with industry. Web connectivity is below average. In Output, Mexico is ranked 29th for total publications but 46th when adjusted for population. Tertiary enrollment rates are ranked 45th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is below average. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita Mexico’s overall rank is 47 and the overall score is well below that expected at Mexico’s level of income.

Netherlands

In 2016 The Netherlands is ranked seventh overall, which combines ranks of 11 for Resources, 5 for Environment, 6 for Connectivity and 8 for Output. It is ranked 11th for total expenditure on higher education (which is 80 per cent government funded) as a share of GDP and 10th for expenditure per student. It ranks in the top ten countries for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions. It ranks highly for Connectivity with business: sixth for joint publications and seventh for knowledge transfer. Joint publications with international authors are ranked 13th and web connectivity is above average. In Output, the Netherlands performs strongly in research publications per head (sixth) and their average impact (second). The participation rate is ranked 16th, and the education qualifications of the workforce 21st. The standing of its universities is high: ranked sixth for depth and 12th for its best three universities. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is around average levels. When account is taken of levels of GDP per capita the overall rank is 13. The scores for each of the four broad categories and overall are above those expected at the Netherlands income levels.

New Zealand

In 2016 New Zealand is ranked equal 14th overall, which combines ranks of 18 for Resources, 5 for Environment, 6 for Connectivity and 21 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, New Zealand is ranked 21st for government expenditure, 9th for total expenditure and 19th for research expenditure. Increases in both government and private expenditure have increased the Resources rank by nine places. In Connectivity, New Zealand’s highest score is for the percentage of students who are international, where it is ranked sixth. For joint research it is ranked 10th for publications with international researchers and 25th for publications with industry. In the Output category it is ranked 11th on publications per head and 20th on their average impact. New Zealand is ranked 13th for its tertiary enrolment rate and 19th for the tertiary educational qualifications of its workforce. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is around average levels. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, New Zealand’s rank improves to 10th and its score is above the level expected at its income level.

Norway

In 2016 Norway is ranked 12th overall, which combines ranks of 10 for Resources, 11 for Environment, 16 for Connectivity and 12 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Norway is ranked 6th for government expenditure (virtually all expenditure), 21st for total expenditure and 11th for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked ninth. In Connectivity, co-authorship with international collaborators is ranked 14th and with industry 15th. Web connectivity is ranked seventh. In the Output variables, Norway scores highest for the number of national researchers (eighth) and research publications (ninth), each adjusted for population. The average impact of publications is ranked 11th. Norway is ranked 18th for participation rates in higher education and 12th for the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is around average levels. Norway’s overall rank falls to 27th when account is taken of levels of GDP per head but the overall score is around that expected at its income level.

Poland

In 2016 Poland is ranked 32nd overall, which combines ranks of 34 for Resources, 12 for Environment, 42 for Connectivity and 31 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Poland is ranked 26th for government expenditure, 34th for total expenditure and 33rd for research expenditure. Connectivity with industry is below average: Poland ranks 38th in joint articles with industry and 45th in knowledge transfer with business. In joint articles with international collaborators Poland is ranked 40th. Web connectivity is a little below the median. In Output, Poland is ranked 19th on published articles but this falls to 32nd when adjusted for population. The average impact of articles is ranked at 35. Participation rates are ranked 21st and the tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce 27th. Poland performs well (fourth) on the employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with those who only completed final year of schooling. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is below average. However, Poland’s rank improves to 28th when account is taken of levels of GDP per capita and its score is around that expected at its income level.

Portugal

In 2016 Portugal is ranked 25th overall, which combines ranks of 27 for Resources, 27 for Environment, 26 for Connectivity and 26 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Portugal is ranked 33rd for both government expenditure and total expenditure and 13th for research expenditure. Under the heading of Connectivity, Portugal is ranked 19th for joint publications with international researchers and 36th for publications with industry. Knowledge transfer with business is ranked 27th. In the Output module, publications per head are ranked 16th. The tertiary educational qualifications of the workforce are ranked 31st and the tertiary enrollment rate is ranked 25th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is a little below average. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Portugal’s ranking jumps to eighth and its score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Romania

In 2016 Romania is ranked 41st overall, which combines ranks of 47 for Resources, 15 for Environment, 37 for Connectivity and 46 for Output. Total expenditure and research expenditure, expressed as a share of GDP, are both ranked at 44. The Environment measure benefits from institutions having a relatively high percentage of female staff (ranked sixth). In the Connectivity measures, knowledge transfer with business is ranked 24th, higher than joint publications (ranked 35th). Joint articles with international collaborators is ranked 41st. The absence of a university in the top 500 lowers the Output score. Romania is ranked 37th on research articles per head and 47th on their average impact. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is well below average. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Romania’s rank remains at 41 and its score is well below that expected at its level of income.

Russian Federation

In 2016 Russia is ranked 34th overall, which combines ranks of 44 for Resources, 25 for Environment, 39 for Connectivity and 29 for Output. In expenditure as a share of GDP, Russia is ranked 36th for government expenditure, 32nd for total expenditure and 43rd for research expenditure. In the Connectivity module, Russia is relatively weak on interactions with industry: it is ranked 41st on joint publications with industry and 39th for knowledge transfer with firms. It ranks 38th for joint publications with international researchers. In the Output module, the Russia is ranked first for the educational qualifications of its workforce and third for the employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. Total research publications rank 27th, publications per head 47th and their average impact 46th. However, comparing Output with inputs (especially the relatively low level of funding), sector productivity is a little above average. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita the rank is 44 and the GDP adjusted score for Russia is well below that expected at its income level.

Saudi Arabia

In 2016 Saudi Arabia is ranked equal 28th overall, which combines ranks of 9 for Resources, 48 for Environment, 29 for Connectivity and 36 for Output. It is ranked first for government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. In the Connectivity module, Saudi Arabia is ranked first on the share of publications that have an international collaborator but it is ranked only 42nd for joint publications with industry. Web connectivity is ranked lowly at 44th. The highest score in the output module is for the quality of its best universities where it is ranked 20th. It is ranked 39th for publications per head and 27th for their average impact. Comparing outputs (Output + Connectivity) with inputs (Resources + Environment), measured sector productivity is well below average, but in part this is due to timing differences: increased government expenditure is not yet fully reflected in improvements in outcomes. Saudi Arabia’s high level of GDP per capita inevitably means that its ranking falls (to 48th) when income levels are allowed for. The GDP adjusted score for Saudi Arabia is well below that expected at its income level.

Serbia

In 2016 Serbia is ranked 39th overall, which combines ranks of 30 for Resources, 41 for Environment, 43 for Connectivity and 44 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 14thand expenditure by institutions on R&D is ranked 22nd. Links with business are limited: Serbia ranks 44th in the WEF business survey of views on the education sector and 49th on joint publications with industry. It ranks higher in joint publications with international authors (29th). In the Output module, Serbia ranks 30th in publications per head and 43rd in their average impact. The tertiary education qualifications of the work force are ranked 36th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is well below average. However, when account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita Serbia’s rank jumps to second place and the score is well above that expected for its level of income.

Singapore

In 2016 Singapore is ranked eighth overall, which combines ranks of 2 for Resources, 6 for Environment, 8 for Connectivity and 15 for Output. It ranks 14th for expenditure on tertiary education as a share of GDP, but first for expenditure per student and second for R&D expenditure by universities p0er heads of population. In the Connectivity category, it ranks first for the relative importance of international students. It ranks fifth for the relative importance of joint publications with international authors, 24th on joint publications with industry and 10th for the degree of knowledge transfer with firms. Singapore is ranked seventh for publications per head of population and their average impact is ranked third. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce is ranked third and the number of national researchers per head of population is ranked sixth. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is a little below average. When we allow for national levels of GDP per head Singapore’s ranking falls to 24 but the score is around what is expected at Singapore’s income levels.

Slovakia

In 2015 Slovakia is ranked 36th overall, which combines ranks of 41 for Resources, 35 for Environment, 34 for Connectivity and 33 for Output. Total expenditure on higher education (of which 80 per cent is by government) as a share of GDP is ranked 37th. Slovakia is ranked 28th for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions (deflated by population). Within the Connectivity module, Slovakia is ranked 30th for joint publications with international researchers, 27th for joint publications with industry but only 45th for knowledge transfer with firms. Within the Output module, publications per head are ranked at 34 and their average impact at 27. The Output score is lowered by the absence of any university in the Shanghai top 500. Slovakia ranks very highly at seventh for employment of those with a tertiary qualification compared with school leavers. When account is taken of relative levels of GDP per capita, Slovakia’s rank falls to 46 and its score is well below that expected at its income level.

Slovenia

In 2016 Slovenia is ranked 26th overall, which combines ranks of 31 for Resources, 30 for Environment, 23 for Connectivity and 27 for Output. It is ranked around the median level for many of the indicators. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 19th but total expenditure is ranked 43rd. In the Connectivity module, joint papers with industry are ranked 12th and with international collaborators 24th, but knowledge transfer with firms rates poorly at 42nd. Slovenia is ranked 17th for publications per head and 28th for their average impact. The highest ranking among the output variables occurs for participation rates in higher education where Slovenia is ranked seventh. It is ranked 16th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) lies in the top ten. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Slovenia’s rank improves three places to 23rd and the score is around that expected at its income level.

South Africa

In 2016 South Africa is ranked 37th overall, which combines ranks of 42 for resources, 39 for Environment, 30 for Connectivity and 37 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 46th and research expenditure at 35. The Environment rank is dragged down by a very low score on the World Economic Forum rating of the education sector by business (ranked 50th) and its rank of 49 for data quality. In Connectivity, South Africa is 17th for joint publications with international researchers, 27th for joint publications with industry and 29th for knowledge transfer with firms. But web-based connectivity is ranked lowly at 48th. In Output, the tertiary education sector is ranked 42nd for publications per head but 26th for their average impact. The overall level of educational qualifications of its workforce is low (ranked 49th). Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources +Environment) lies in the top ten. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, South Africa’s rank jumps to seventh and the score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Spain

In 2016 Spain is ranked 24th overall, which combines ranks of 28 for Resources, 33 for Environment, 25 for Connectivity and 24 for Output. In Resources as a share of GDP, Spain is ranked 28th for government expenditure (about 80 per cent of total expenditure), 40th for total expenditure and 27th for research expenditure. In Connectivity, Spain ranks 25th for joint publications with international collaborators and 22nd for joint publications with industry. Knowledge transfer with industry is ranked 31st. Spain’s tertiary institutions are ranked 15th for web connectivity. In Output, Spain is ranked twelfth for total publications but 25th on a per capita basis. The average impact of published articles is ranked 22nd. The participation rate in tertiary education is ranked fifth which is much higher than the educational qualifications of the workforce (ranked 20th). Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is above average. When allowance is made for differences in GDP per head, Spain’s rank is 29 and its score is around that expected at its level of income.

Sweden

In 2016 Sweden is ranked fifth overall, which combines ranks of 5 for Resources, 23 for Environment, 7 for Connectivity and 5 for Output. In Resources as a share of GDP, Sweden is ranked fifth for government expenditure (about 90 per cent of total expenditure), 15th for total expenditure and second for research expenditure. Expenditure per student is ranked fifth. Sweden’s lowest rank is for Environment which owes to its score for institutional autonomy being only around median values. Connectivity has fallen four places from last year but it is still strong, especially in research, where Sweden ranks second for joint publications with industry and seventh for joint publications with international researchers. It is in the top ten for web connectivity. In Output, Sweden is ranked second for publications per head and eighth for their average impact. Its university sector is ranked second for average quality. It is ranked 27th for participation rates in higher education and 15th for the educational qualifications of its workforce. Sweden is ranked fourth for the number of researchers in the nation per capita. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is around median values. When allowance is made for levels of GDP per capita, Sweden is ranked fourth overall and its score is well above that expected at its level of income.

Switzerland

In 2016 Switzerland is ranked second overall, which combines ranks of 6 for Resources, 8 for Environment, 1 for Connectivity and 6 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP ranks 17th and expenditure per student third. Switzerland ranks first for R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions (per head of population). Connectivity within the nation and externally is high. It is rated first for knowledge transfer with firms, 10th for joint publications with industry, and third for joint publications with international researchers. It is fourth for the proportion of students who are international. Web-based impact is ranked second. In Output, Switzerland is ranked fourth for publications per head and first for their average impact. Its universities are ranked first for average quality. It ranks 14th for the educational qualifications of its workforce and 12th for the number of researchers in the nation per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is a little above median values. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Switzerland is ranked 12th and its score is above that expected at its level of income.

Taiwan-China

In 2016 Taiwan-China is ranked 21st overall, which combines ranks of 25 for Resources, 13 for Environment, 22 for Connectivity and 22 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 17th, of which about one-half is private. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with firms is rated 15th but joint publications with industry are ranked lower at 33nd. Joint publications with international researchers are rated lowly at 46th. It ranks first for Web connectivity. In Output, Taiwan-China is ranked 14th for total publications and 33rd for their average impact. It is ranked eighth for both the educational qualifications of its workforce and the enrolment rate in higher education. Taiwan-China is well provided with researchers per head of population where it is ranked seventh. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is above median levels. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Taiwan-China slips to 37th in the ranking and is below the level expected at its income level.

Thailand

In 2016 Thailand is ranked equal 44th overall, which combines ranks of 48 for Resources, 21 for Environment, 36 for Connectivity and 48 for Output. Government expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked 44th and expenditure on R&D is ranked 42nd. In Connectivity, knowledge transfer with industry is ranked 15th. Joint publications with industry and with international researchers are each ranked at 32. The Output score is negatively impacted from having no university in the Shanghai top 500. Publications per head are ranked 45th and their average impact 36th. The (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce have risen to 37th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is a little below average levels. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Thailand ranks 42nd, but this includes a rank of 10th for Connectivity, an attribute which is important at Thailand’s stage in development. Thailand’s adjusted score is well below that expected at its level of income.

Turkey

In 2016 Turkey is ranked equal 44th overall, an improvement from 49th in last year’s ranking owing to improved data on Resources which now rank 29th. The overall rank includes ranks of 49 for Environment, 48 for Connectivity and 38 for Output. As a share of GDP, expenditure on higher education ranks 28th and research expenditure by tertiary institutions ranks 20th. Among the Connectivity variables the highest rank (37th) is for knowledge transfer with firms. But research links are not strong: for articles written jointly with international collaborators Turkey ranks 45th, for joint articles with industry it ranks 47th. In Output, Turkish institutions of higher education rank 17th for total publications but 38th for publications per head. Citations per article are ranked 37th. Participation rates are ranked 15th but it will take time for this to flow through to the educational qualifications of the workforce (currently ranked 43rd). The number of researchers per head of population is ranked 38th. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is above average. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Turkey’s rank improves to 40th but its score is well below that expected at its level of income.

Ukraine

In 2016 Ukraine is ranked 42nd overall, which combines ranks of 26 for Resources, 46 for Environment, 46 for Connectivity and 45 for Output. On our approximate estimates Ukraine ranks in the top ten for expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP. However because of the high participation rate (ranked 14th) expenditure per student is in the lower decile. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions has a low ranking of 46. Connectivity with business is weak: ranked 41st for knowledge transfer and 50th for joint publications. Joint publications with international researchers ranks 36th. In Output, Ukraine loses points for not having a flagship university in the Shanghai top 500. Ukraine ranks 48th for both total publications and publications per head of population and 50th for their average impact. The level of educational qualifications of its workforce is ranked highly at 16th. Comparing outcomes (Output + Connectivity) with inputs (Resources + Environment), Ukraine is ranked well below average for sector productivity, but this result is crucially dependent on the approximations for expenditure. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, Ukraine’s overall ranking improves to 33rd, although its score is below that expected at its income levels.

United Kingdom

In 2016 The United Kingdom is ranked fourth overall, which combines ranks of 12 for Resources, 10 for Environment, 4 for Connectivity and 2 for Output. As a consequence of the OECD correcting data for government expenditure, the Resources rank has risen 14 places and the overall rank four places compared with the 2015 rankings. As a share of GDP, government expenditure on higher education is now ranked 24th, total expenditure 11th and research expenditure 18th. Expenditure per student is ranked fourth which reflects the lower than average participation rate (ranked 35th). Connectivity with industry is relatively strong: the United Kingdom ranks eighth for knowledge transfer with business and 13th for joint publications with industry. In joint publications with international authors it is ranked 15th. It ranks third for the percentage of students who are international; sixth for the number of times external users access websites (deflated by population). In the Output category, the United Kingdom ranks third for total publications, eighth for publications per head of population and fifth for the average impact of articles. It ranks second for the quality of its best three universities. It is ranked ninth for the (tertiary) educational qualifications of the workforce and 19th for researchers per head of population. Sector productivity as measured by the relationship between outcomes (Output + Connectivity) and inputs (Resources + Environment) is ranked in the top ten. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the United Kingdom is ranked first and its score is well above the level expected at its income level.

United States of America

In 2016 The United States is ranked first overall, which combines ranks of 3 for Resources, 1 for Environment, 14 for Connectivity and 1 for Output. Expenditure on higher education as a share of GDP is ranked first (split about evenly between public and private) and expenditure per student second. R&D expenditure by tertiary institutions per head of population is ranked 13th. In Connectivity, United States academics are ranked 16th for joint publications with industry but 37th for collaboration with international researchers. Knowledge transfer with industry is ranked fourth. Although the United States has the largest absolute number of international students, as a share of its total students it ranks only 26th. It ranks first for the number of times external users access websites of tertiary institutions (adjusted for population). In Output, the United Sates is first for total publications, 19th for publications per head of population and sixth for the average impact of articles. It ranks fourth for participation rates and seventh for the (tertiary) educational credentials of its workforce. It is ranked first for the quality of its best three universities, twelfth for depth in quality of universities (adjusted for population) and 20th for the national number of researchers per head of population. Comparing Output with inputs (Resources + Environment), the sector exhibits above average levels of productivity. When levels of GDP per capita are taken into account, the overall rank for the United States falls to 16, but its score is above the level expected at its income level.

Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Brazil
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
China
Croatia
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Hong Kong SAR
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Ireland
Israel
Italy
Japan
Korea
Malaysia
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Romania
Russian Federation
Saudi Arabia
Serbia
Singapore
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Taiwan-China
Thailand
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United States of America